Konektivi u romanu “He Knows Too Much”, Alana Maleya

Zorana PETRIČEVIĆ

Univerzitet Crne Gore

Engleski jezik i književnost, smjer Nauka o jeziku, (II ciklus studija)

zorana.p1991@gmail.com

Konektivi u romanu He Knows Too Much, Alana Maleya

Sažetak: Rad predstavlja detaljnu analizu konektiva kao funkcionalne kategorije u romanu Alana Maleya, He Knows Too Much. U radu su date definicije konektiva kao i veznika koji vrše istoimenu funkciju. Takođe, opisani su oblici veznika koji mogu vršiti tu funkciju. Opisuju se i koordinacija i subordinacija kojom se povezuju dvije rečenice stvarajući pri tom odnos nezavisnosti, odnosno zavisnosti među njima. Predstavljen je detaljan opis koordinativnih veznika, njihovo značenje i koordinativne strukture. Na kraju je predstavljena analiza subordinativnih veznika. Primjeri su uzeti iz romana Alana Maleya, He Knows Too Much, dok primjeri koji nisu prisutni u romanu, pronađeni su u lekcijama šestog nivoa na internetskom sajtu Breaking news English.com. (BNE)

Ključne riječi: konektivi, veznici, koordinacija, subordinacija, značenje, strukture.

1. Konektivi

Riječ konektiv potiče od latinske riječi connectivus što znači I connect (Ja povezujem). Konektivi su bilo koje riječi koje povezuju klauze, fraze ili pojedinačne riječi u smislenu cjelinu. (Your dictionary, n.d.) Funkciju konektiva kao funkcionalne kategorije imaju oblici sa funkcijama veznika. To znači da pored veznika, koji imaju funkciju konektiva, i drugi oblici mogu vršiti tu funkciju, npr. prilozi i prijedlozi.

1.1. Veznici

Veznici su funkcijske riječi koje nemaju sopstveno značenje. Oni pripadaju zatvorenoj klasi riječi, klasi koja nije produktivna. Veznici vezuju gramatičke elemente i gramatičke cjeline. Za razliku od nekih priloga koji imaju funkciju konektiva, veznici ne pripadaju ni jednoj klauzi koju povezuju. Koordinatori, subordinatori i konjunkti su veznici.

1.2. Oblici veznika

Veznici se dijele na dvije grupe:

1) centralni veznici – veznici koji se upotrebljavaju samo kao veznici;

2) periferni veznici – svi drugi oblici koji vrše funkciju veznika.

Tako neki prilozi, prijedlozi i prijedloške fraze mogu biti slični veznicima:

a) He ordered idlis with (=and) masala. (str. 40)

» Naručio je rižu sa (= i) sos(om).

b) I loved him you know, in fact, I still love him. (str. 106) » Ja sam ga voljela znaš, u stvari, ja ga još uvijek volim.

• Prijedlog with, pored toga što može biti sličan koordinatoru, on se, takođe, može dodati i listi subordinatora i to onda kada uvodi subjekat nefinitne klauze ili klauze bez glagola. (Kverk i Grinbaum, 1973:314)

(1) With nothing to keep them in India any longer, Dick and Sally returned to England. (str. 26) Oblici as, but i than mogu vršiti funkciju veznika, ali i prijedloga u komparativnim frazama kada se nađu ispred ličnih zamjenica u zavisnom padežu. Dok su Džefri Lič i Džon Svartvik (1975: 199) u Communicative Grammar of English iznijeli stav da su u takvim primjerima oblici as, but i than više prijedlozi nego veznici, R. W. Zandvort (1975: 146) u A Handbook of English Grammar kaže da onda kada se ovi oblici nađu ispred lične zamjenice u nezavisnom padežu imaju funkciju veznika, a kada se nađu ispred lične zamjenice u zavisnom padežu imaju funkciju prijedloga. U romanu He knows too much, Alana Maleya pronađena su samo dva primjera za oblik than sa funkcijom prijedloga:

(1) Many people are less fortunate than me. (I); (str. 46)

(2) God was definitely better at it than him. (he); (str. 109)

2. Koordinacija i subordinacija

Koordinacija i subordinacija predstavljaju povezivanje dviju ili više klauza kao elemenata složene rečenice. Dok se koordinacijom obrazuju nezavisno složene rečenice, subordinacijom se obrazuju zavisno složene. U zavisno složenim rečenicama postoji hijerarhijski odnos jer je jedna klauza glavna dok su ostale zavisne u odnosu na nju i vrše funkciju nekog njenog dijela: subjekta, objekta, predikata, priloga, pridjeva.

Nezavisno složena rečenica je rečenica koja sadrži dvije potpuno nezavisne klauze koje su povezane koordinativnim veznikom. To znači da svaka klauza može da stoji samostalno:

(1) His ugly smile revealed two large teeth and his small eyes reminded Dick of a snake. (str. 7)

(2) She had more charm than her husband and Dick could see that some people would think that she was attractive. (str. 11)

(3) She was grown up now but he still recalled the desperation of those weeks and months following Sarah’s death. (str. 13)

(4) She said that she was on a sick leave but I have found on the file the receipt for the air ticket. (str. 33)

(5) Was it his imagination, or was the man smiling to himself? (str. 7)

Zavisno složena rečenica je rečenica u kojoj je jedna klauza glavna, dok druga ima funkciju nekog dijela te klauze:

(1) When Dick had questioned her about it, Molly had raised her eyes to the ceiling and sighed. (str. 11)

(2) The road widened as they passed Fort St George. (str. 12)

3. Koordinacija

Postoji nekoliko tipova koordinacija. Sindetska koordinacija je ona koordinacija koja je obilježena upotrebom koordinativnih veznika ili koordinatora:

(1) Slowly and carefully, Dick built up a file proving extensive corruption by the Visvanathans under the protection of Keith Lennox. (str. 70)

U asindetskoj koordinaciji koordinativni veznici nisu prisutni, ali mogu biti upotrijebljeni:

(1) Slowly, carefully Dick built up a file proving extensive corruption by the Visvanathans under the protection of Keith Lennox. (str. 70)

Kada veznik povezuje više od dvije riječi, fraze ili klauze, najčešće se upotrebljava samo jednom i to između posljednje dvije riječi, fraze ili klauze:

(1) Molly was justifiably proud of her collection of Indian temple carvings, southern Indian bronze statues and contemporary paintings. (str. 10)

(2) They had invited a selection of their ‘closest friends: a High Court judge, a police inspector, an IAS officer, an architect, an ex-minister of Finance in the State Government, the owner of a shipping company, a couple from the British High Court, a Tamil film director and a well-known local painter. (str. 10)

Međutim, i u takvim primjerima možemo upotrijebiti veznik ispred svake navedene riječi, fraze ili klauze i tada govorimo o polisindetskoj koordinaciji. Ona se najčešće koristi za dramatizaciju ili naglašavanje svake navedene riječi, fraze ili klauze:

(1) The tech giant is working on a device called Google Fit to rival Apple’s Health Kit and Samsung’s Galaxy Gear 2 and the Galaxy Gear Fit.(BNE, 2014)

3.1. Koordinativni veznici

Koordinativni veznici su oblici koji vezuju dvije klauze koje nijesu u hijerarhijskom odnosu.

Oni takođe vezuju konstituente klauze i to one koji imaju isti gramatički status i funkciju.

Koordinativne veznike možemo podijeliti na: koordinatore, polukoordinatore, kvazikoordinatore i korelative (Đorđević, 2002: 710):

a) Koordinatori su and, or i but. Razlika između njih je ta što koordinativni veznici and i or mogu spajati više od dvije klauze, dok but može spajati samo dvije klauze. (Kverk i Grinbaum, 1973: 267)

(1) Sally had been a wonderful mother to Angie, and they had had Simon a year after their marriage. (str. 14)

(2) Gopal speeded up and they were soon leaving the elegant but neglected university buildings. (str. 12)

(3) He had long suspected that the man was dishonest but he had never been able to prove it before. (str. 14)

(4) She could have stayed on in the UK with the boy but she decided to go back. (str.53)

(5) In spite of her position as the boss’s wife, she never made anyone feel small or unimportant. (str. 22)

b) Polukoordinatori su nor, yet i so. To su oblici subordinatora koji imaju neka obilježja koordinatora. Ovi prilozi su slični koordinatorima jer se i oni pojavljuju sa asindetskom koordinacijom u kojoj se mogu lako izostaviti. Mogu se zamijeniti koordinatorima and i but, pa zato ne spadaju u prave koordinatore. (Kverk, Grinbaum, Lič i Svatvik, 1985: 467)

(1) Dick did not like the look of them, nor the way they kept glancing over in his and Lakshmi’s direction. (str. 77)

(2) It should never have happened, yet somehow, looking back, it seemed inevitable. (str. 8)

(3) He moved with the grace and confidence of a wild animal, yet his smile was kind. (str. 68)

(4) No taxi would agree to drive him home, so he had had to stagger the mile or so back home on foot, his wet, muddy clothes sticking uncomfortable to his skin. (str. 29)

(5) The letter was dated 15 October, so it had taken some time to arrive. (str. 34)

c) Kvazikoordinatori su as much as, as well as, more than, rather/sooner than, if not, not to say, in addition to, after. Prefiks quasi potiče od latinske riječi quasi što znači as if, almost (kvazi, kao, skoro). (Your dictionary, n.d.) Kvazikoordinatori su oblici koji nekada imaju funkciju veznika, tj. koordina-tivnih veznika, pri čemu vezuju gramatički različite konstituente, a nekada su ti isti oblici subordinatori ili prijedlozi:

(1) Vish had always had very clever reasons for selecting one contractor rather than another cheaper one. (str. 15)

(2) The furniture was comfortable rather than stylish. (str. 50)

(3) Researchers said that rather than think badly of someone scruffily dressed, many people believe that dressing down is a sign of confidence. (BNE, 2014)

(4) Rather than looking to the future, many stores are still stuck in the past.(BNE,2013)

(5) High-quality package that appeals to adults as well as to adventurous kids. (BNE, 2013)

(6) The New York Post reports that Mr.Purisima is suing the city as well as the local hospitals. (BNE, 2014)

d) Korelativi su parovi veznika koji se upotrebljavaju u dvije klauze iste rečenice. Oni povezuju dvije klauze ili dva konstituenta klauze. Korelativi ne mogu imati više od dva konstituenta i mogu se javiti samo na početku konstituenata: bothand, eitheror, neitheror.

(1) Both Vish and Molly had been all smiles and helpfulness. (str. 9)

(2) Of course, he was innocent of the accusations but even a rumor could be damaging, both to him and to the company. (str. 17)

(3) Neither Simon nor Sally ever forgave him. (str. 27)

(4) Neither Dick nor Shaukat had noticed the black Ambassador with dark windows which had left the West End just after them. (str. 72)

(5) Either through play or instruction (BNE, 2006)

(6) Either people are overestimating the amount of moderate intensity physical activity they do through house work, or are eating too much to compensate for the amount of activity undertaken. (BNE, 2013)

Negacija not/n’t ili kombinacija not/n’t only može biti korelativ sa but:

(1) With Homer Simpson’s voice helping people to navigate their trip, TomTom customers will not only travel safety and with less stress, but will also be highly entertained along the way. (BNE, 2009)

(2) Very few leaders get to change not only the political landscape of their country but of the world. (BNE, 2013)

Kao korelativi upotrebljavaju se i neki prilozi: sometimessometimes, in partin part…, for one thingfor another thing, nownow, partlypartly, on the one handon the other hand. (Đorđević, 2001: 712)

(1) Sometimes it was called corruption, sometimes it wasn’t. (str. 15)

(2) There was a wintry haze over Delhi partly caused by traffic pollution and partly by the many fires on street corners. (str. 19)

3.2. Značenje koordinativnih veznika

1) Veznik and ima najopštiju upotrebu i značenje. Uslov za povezivanje dvije klauze je njihova logička veza i može imati sljedeća značenja:

a) Posljedica/rezultat – događaj u drugoj klauzi je posljedica ili rezultat radnje iz prve klauze:

(1) His body would be washed up somewhere down the coast and (=therefore) no-one would ever suspect murder. (str. 91)

(2) Shaukat recognized the car and (=therefore) he speeded up. (str. 76)

b) Redoslijed događaja – događaj druge klauze hronološki prati događaj prve klauze:

(1) The chowkidar opened the gate and (=then) the car slid gratefully into the cool shade of the porch. (str. 12)

(2) Dick got shakily to his feet and (=then) they made their way back to the car park, taking care to stay in the open. (str. 80)

c) Kontrast – druga klauza predstavlja kontrast u odnosu na prvu i veznik and može biti zamijenjen veznikom but:

(1) Vish was a typist and (but) Molly was a telephone operator. (str. 44)

(2) It had attracted attention at the time because Vish was a Hindu Brahmin, and (but) Molly was a Keralite Christian. (str. 39)

d) Sličnost – druga klauza ima sličan smisao kao prva:

(1) His letter went unanswered and the telephone number Suresh had given him rang engaged the whole time. (str. 40)

(2) President Obama called Mandela a “personal hero” and said that Mandela’s sacrifices to achieve equal rights helped inspire his own career. (BNE, 2013)

e) Uslov – prva klauza je uslov za ostvarivanje radnje u drugoj klauzi:

(1) Come back and (=then) we will talk. (str. 84)

(2) Just let me know and I will take care of it. (str. 9)

f) Komentar – druga klauza je komentar na prvu klauzu:

(1) This crime has been committed and this is a premeditated offense. (BNE, 2013)

(2) Washing a car can be a chore- and a costly one at that. (BNE, 2014)

g) Iznenađenje – u drugoj klauzi je izraženo iznenađenje, čuđenje u odnosu na sadržaj prve klauze:

(1) Lennox had known of this and (yet) done nothing. (str. 69)

(2) I thought I was walking on solid earth and (yet) I’m following down a deep, black hole. (str. 104)

h) Dodavanje – druga klauza je samo dodatak prvoj klauzi:

(1) He’s a diplomat and they live in Senegal now. (str. 95)

(2) You’ve got lots of experience, plenty of contacts and also you know the Indian scene. (str. 92)

2) Veznik or ima sljedeća značenja: a) Alternativa/izbor

(1) Shall I make you some coffee or tea? (str. 65)

(2.) You will be at West End or Nagarajan’s? (str. 71) b) Korekcija

(1) The only exception has been Visvanathan, or Vish as he was known. (str. 9)

c) Negativni uslov – Kolins Kobild u English Grammar (1990: 316) kaže da kada dajemo savjete, upozoravamo ili naređujemo nešto, često želimo reći šta će se desiti toj osobi ukoliko ne uradi onako kako smo je posavjetovali, upozorili ili naredili joj. Ovo se postiže korišćenjem glagola u imperativu u jednoj klauzi koju prati veznik or i klauza sa glagolom u budućem vremenu:

(1) You do what I told you, or I’ll arrange for you to take early retirement too. (str.34)

d) Aproksimacija – frazalna koordinacija sa brojevima može predstavljati aproksimaciju i u tom slučaju nema elipse:

(1) He called his sister Maureen in Reading to ask if he could stay for a day or two. (str. 30)

(2) He explained the financial arrangement he had made and told her he would be away in India for a month or two. (str. 36)

e) Inkluzivno (uključno) or – veznik koji izražava mogućnost ispunjenja obje mogućnosti:

(1) I don’t care about my reputation, or about what the neighbour’s might say. (str.84)

(2) The report could well make would-be parents think twice about starting a family, or about the number of children they have. (BNE, 2014)

f) Ikskluzivno (isključno) or – veznik koji izražava mogućnost ispunjenja samo jedne od mogućnosti:

(1) Say “yes” or “no”. (str. 99)

3) Značenje veznika but:

Veznik but ima značenje kontrasta.

Kontrast druge klauze u odnosu na prvu može postojati iz razloga što druga klauza predstavlja nešto neočekivano kada se uzme u obzir značenje prve klauze:

(1) The leader had taken out a knife but he never had time to use it. (str. 79) »Although the leader had taken out a knife, he never had time to use it.

(2) There were dark moments that tested his faith in humanity, but he refused to give up. (BNE, 2013)

Kontrast može predstavljati i preformulisanje u potvrdnom smislu onoga što je rečeno ili naznačeno u prvoj klauzi:

(1) Dick had never met Outram in person, but he had heard plenty of stories about his sensational love life. (str. 62)

»Dik nikada nije upoznao Outrama lično, već je čuo mnogo priča o njegovom senzacionalnom ljubavnom životu.

(2) He no longer needed information, but he longed to hear Lakshmi’s voice again. (str.63)

3.3. Koordinativne strukture

Prema vrsti segmenata koje vezuju, koordinativne strukture dijele se na: proste, složene, dodatne i pseudokoordinacije. U romanu He knows too much, kao i na internetskoj stranici Breaking news English.com pronađeni su primjeri za sljedeće koordinativne strukture:

1) Proste koordinacije – koordinacije klauza i konstituenata (predikata, imeničkih fraza, dijelova imeničkih fraza, glagola i glagolskih fraza, pridjeva i pridjevskih fraza, priloga i priloških faza, prijedloga i prijedloških fraza):

a) Koordinacija predikata i predikacije je ona koordinacija u kojoj je subjekat prve klauze koreferentan sa subjektom druge klauze, pa se stoga briše kada koordinator povezuje dva predikata. Kverk, Lič, Svartvik i Grinbaum u A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (1985:480) kažu da se ovakva koordinacija može shvatiti i kao koordinacija dvaju nezavisnih klauza koje imaju isti subjekat te se on, iz istog razloga, briše:

(1) A turbaned porter took hold of his bags and whisked him off to a comfortably old-fashioned, spacious airy room on the ground floor. (str. 19)

(2) I wrote letters to Delhi but never got a proper answer. (str. 44)

(3) The car would take him and bring him back. (str. 86)

(4) The courtyard bellow was dark and filled with thick, milk fog. (str. 57)

b) Koordinacija imeničkih fraza

(1) Veiled threats and vague promises (str. 7)

(2) Papers and files (str. 10)

U vezi sa razlikom između koordinacije klauza i koordinacije konstituenata stoji i razlika između dvije mogućnosti kod veznika and pri koordinaciji imeničkih fraza (Kverk i Grinbaum, 1990: 274)

Kombinatorna koordinacija je koordinacija u kojoj je analiziranje koordinacije kao koordinacije klauza netačno jer dijelovi takvih koordinacija funkcionišu u kombinaciji sa ostatkom klauze:

(1) You and Molly had quite a thing going back in 1970. (about each other); (str. 66) »Ti i Moli (jedno spram drugog) ste gajili jaka osjećanja 1970. godine.

(2) But soon Dick and Lakshmi were so absorbed in each other that they forgot all about the men at the other table. (str. 77)

Segregatorna koordinacija je ona koordinacija u kojoj je rekonstrukcija elidovanih dijelova moguća, što se može obezbijediti i oblicima: both… (and), each, neithernor.

(1) Barbara and I look forward to seeing you for drinks. (str.20)

»Barbara looks forward to seeing you for drinks and I look forward to seeing you for drinks.

(2) Angie and her husband believed in giving their children total freedom. (str. 27)

Mnoge koordinirane imeničke fraze mogu imati dvosmisleno značenje:

(1) Vish and Molly had collected twenty per cent of the difference from the sellers. (str.69)

Ovakva rečenica je dvosmislena jer se može shvatiti da su Vish i Molly pojedinačno uzeli po dvadeset posto ili da su Vish i Molly zajedno uzeli dvadeset posto.

(2) After a few desperate drinks and dinner in the Riverside Restaurant, he began to feel that things were not so bad after all. (str. 29)

Ova rečenica je takođe dvosmislena jer se može shvatiti da modifikator “desperate” modifikuje samo “drinks” ili da modifikuje oboje, i “drinks” i “dinner”. Pa bi značenje bilo: Nakon malo očajnog pića i večere… ili Nakon malo očajnog pića i očajne večere…

c) Koordinacija dijelova imeničkih fraza

U okviru imeničke fraze možemo naći koordinaciju: glava, modifikatora i postmodifikatora ili kvalifikatora.

1) Koordinacija glava – kada su glave imeničke fraze koordinirane često se smatra da se determinatori, članovi, modifikatori odnose na svaku od koordiniranih glava, mada smo vidjeli da ima i izuzetaka.

(1) A widower and father (a widower and a father); (str. 13)

(2) Its ups and downs (its ups and its downs); (str. 14)

2) Koordinacija modifikatora (Kverk i Grinbaum, 1990:276) – iako koordinativni modifikatori najčešće imaju segregatorno značenje, oni mogu imati i kombinatorno značenje:

(1) Dull and empty conversation (conversation that is both dull and empty); (str. 16)

(2) Black and white photograph (str. 105)

Segregatorno značenje je najčešće moguće kada koordinirani modifikatori imaju međusobno isključiva značenja:

(1) New and used cars (= new cars and used cars); (BNE, 2013)

(2) New and emerging industries (= new industries and emerging industries); (BNE,2014)

(3) Children from Britain and from France. (children from Britain and children from France); (BNE, 2014)

d) Koordinacija glagola i glagolskih fraza

(1) He continued to clench and unclench his hands throughout the interview. (str. 10)

(2) He tried to comfort her and to find out what had caused her break down. (str. 104)

Koordinacija glavnih glagola

(1) He felt insecure, even among these people he had known and work with for years. (str. 20)

(2) If anyone bought or published the genuine document… (BNE, 2014)

Koordinacija pomoćnih glagola

(1) What Vish does or doesn’t do is a minor matter compared to the company (str. 6)

e) Koordinacija pridjeva i pridjevskih fraza – Dok koordinatori and i or mogu povezivati sve fraze, veznik but se koristi samo u pridjevskim i prijedloškim frazama (Kverk i Grinbaum, 1973:267)

(1) Elegant but neglected (str. 12)

(2) The service was efficient and polite (str. 40)

(3) Something hard and sharp hit him. (str. 86) f) Koordinacija predloga i predloških fraza:

(1) Into the air and over the wall (str. 80)

(2) On his arm and down his back (str. 81)

(3) With or without clothes (BNE, 2005)

(4) With them or with their family (str. 68)

g) Koordinacija priloga i priloških fraza:

(1) Early and often (BNE, 2014)

(2) Psychologically and emotionally(BNE, 2014)

2) Pseudokoordinacija – Veznik koji se najčešće koristi u ovoj koordinaciji jeste veznik and. Ova vrsta koordinacije najčešće ima pežorativno ili idiomatsko značenje. Ima nekoliko tipova pseudokoordinacije koji se najčešće koriste u neformalnom govoru. S. Grinbaum i R. Kverk u A Student’s Grammar of the English Language (1990:280) su naveli šest tipova pseudokoordinacije: koordinacija dvaju glagola koji imaju idiomatsku funkciju, koordinacija dvaju pridjeva pri čemu prvi pridjev ima funkciju naglašavanja drugog, koordinacija istih imenica pri čemu se naznačava različita vrsta, koordinacija istih imenica kako bi se naznačio broj ili količina, koordinacija identičnih komparativnih formi pridjeva, priloga i determinatora koji označavaju povećanje stepena, koordinacija dviju ili više identičnih formi glagola i priloga koji označavaju stalno ponavljanje. U romanu He knows too much, Alan Maley kao i na sajtu Breaking news English.com pronađeni su sljedeći tipovi pseudokoordinacije:

a) Koordinacija identičnih komparativnih formi pridjeva, priloga i determinatora koji označavaju stalno povećanje stepena:

(1) Everest is becoming more and more crowded. (BNE, 2014)

(2) He is becoming more and more difficult. (str. 73)

(3) They drove farther and farther.(str. 86)

b) Koordinacija dviju ili više identičnih formi glagola i priloga koji označavaju stalno ponavljanje:

(1) The list went on and on. (str. 39)

(2) Sir Percy talked on and on. (str. 52)

3) Dodatna koordinacija – koordinacija u kojoj je drugi element koordinacije dodat na klauzu u kojoj se prvi element javlja:

(1) Customers these days want bikes they can commute with, and top-of-the-range bikes. (BNE, 2013)

(2) Italians who might be shocked at the thought of an Australian, or indeed any non-Italian winning the prize can take to heart from the fact that Mr Di Francesco has roots in Italy. (BNE, 2014)

4. Subordinativni veznici

Subordinativni veznici ili subordinatori povezuju dvije ili više klauza koje se nalaze u odnosu zavisnosti. Oni se dijele na: proste, složene i korelative.

1) Prosti subordinatori su:

After, although, though, as, because, before, if, once, since, unless, until, when (ever), where (ever), while.

a) After

(1)After my parents were killed, Keith and Barbara were really wonderful. (str. 68)

(2) Do you happen to know what happened to him after he went down from the university? (str. 60)

b) Although

(1) Although he must have been over eighty years old, he was clearly still active. (str. 59)

(2) When Dick first saw Lakshmi he felt he instantly recognized her, although he had never met her before. (str. 43)

c) Though

(1) Though the Indian operation was technically independent, Trakton’s corporate headquarters in London still had overall control. (str. 8)

»Iako je indijski posao bio tehnički nezavisan, Traktonovo korporativno sjedište u Londonu je i dalje imalo sveobuhvatnu kontrolu.

(2) Lakshmi said nothing, though Dick occasionally caught her eye. (str. 47) »Lukšmi ne reče ništa, mada je Dik povremeno privlačio njenu pažnju.

Oblik though je subordinator na početku rečenice, a kada se nalazi na kraju rečenice taj isti oblik ima funkciju priloga (Đorđević, 2002: 706):

(1) No one believed that though. (str. 45)

(2) I wouldn’t leave it around for Barbara to find though. (str. 99)

d) As

(1) Dick was woken from his thoughts as the car screeched to a stop… (str.12)

(2) The road widened as they passed Fort St George. (str. 12)

e) Because

(1) I have been worrying a little because we have not been hearing from you for some time now. (str. 33)

(2) It agrees with Vish that ‘something has to be done urgently’ because you were getting too curious. (str. 34)

f) Before

(1) Before you went to Delhi that last time, Molly had also gone. (str. 33)

(2) He forgot to go out for lunch, and it was three in the afternoon before he got up from his desk. (str. 35)

g) If

(1)If you have proof of whatever it is, all you have to do is sack them. (str. 16)

(2) She would understand him better if he made an effort. (str. 29) h)

Once

(1) Once they realized that Dick was determined to investigate Vish, some other staff quietly gave him information and hints about where to look. (str. 18)

(2) Once you were down, there would be plenty of people to kick you. (str. 90) j)

Since

(1) It has happen since he retired. (str. 46)

(2) I have thought of you often since I left. (str. 73) k)

Unless

(1) He realized, looking at her, that there was nothing much he could do, unless he wanted a major row. (str. 11)

(2) She was not a very stimulating person to talk to, unless the subject was cooking, gardening, interior decoration or babies. (str. 22)

l) Until

(1) In the evening, he would drink steadily, until he fell into a deep sleep. (str. 32)

(2) Then he swung the second man hanging on to his other arm in a wide circle until his head hit the wall with a dull thud. (str. 79)

m) When

(1) When they had refused to pay, Vish had given the contract to another company. (str.15)

(2) When he reported the death threat to the police, they did not take it very seriously. (str.17)

n) While

(1) While Lakshmi busied herself with preparing lunch, Nagarajan told Dick that she was a widower. (str. 43)

(2) I’ll wait while you get ready. (str. 74)

2) Složeni subordinatori:

a) Subordinatori koji se završavaju na as: as long as, as soon as, as far as.

(1) As soon as the meal was over, Nagarajan excused himself and tottered unsteadily across the courtyard to his room for an afternoon sleep, leaving Dick alone at the table. (str. 45)

(2) They agreed that they would see as soon as Dick’s business with Trakton was over. (str. 85)

(3) I can manage as long as I know you are there… (str. 100)

b) Drugi:

(1) His snake eyes glinted with self-satisfaction, almost as if he knew he was safe, protected. (str. 7)

(2) She fitted back into Britain as if she had never left it. (str. 27)

(3) Anyway, I thought you should know about it, in case you can make some sense of it. (str. 34)

c) Subordinatori koji se završavaju sa that: so that, in that, such that, except that.

(1) They kissed and one thing led to another, so that they arrived an hour late for the party. (str. 16)

(2) Now is the time – so that we are first in the market before other people get the same idea. (str. 102)

d) Subordinatori koji se završavaju sa that, ali koji mogu stajati i bez that:

Provided (that), seeing (that), now (that), supposing (that), considering (that), assuming (that)

(1) It overlooked the Adyar River, which was an impressive view provided it was seen from a distance. (str. 37)

3) Korelativni subordinatori:

Whetheror, thethe, ifthen, more/-er/lessthan, sothat, asas, suchthat.

(1) Dick was not sure whether it was the Indian telecommunication or whether Lakshmi had put down the telephone on him. (str. 101)

(2) Whether the candidate had power over lots of people or control over each person. (BNE, 2013)

(3) They discovered that the more outlandishly people dress, the more respect they get. (BNE, 2014)

(4) If wearing body cameras is what it takes, then that is what they will do. (BNE,2014)

(5) He felt he was thinking more clearly than he had for months. (str. 35)

(6) It seemed to Dick that the costs for this kind of work were higher than they should be. (str. 14)

(7) Buses were so overload that they sagged down at one corner. (str. 41)

(8) Her face was so badly cut that she has permanent scars. (str. 108)

(9) I know that Lennox wasn’t as pure as he pretended to be. (str. 67)

(10) Wardrobing has become such a problem that Blommingdde’s has decided to risk annoying and potentially losing customers in an effort to destroy it. (BNE, 2013)

4) Subordinator i prilog: even if, if only

(1) He was in a good shape physically-six feet tall, slim and muscular even if his hair was prematurely grey. (str. 13)

(2) They still enjoyed each other’s company, even if they were very much absorbed in their own concerns. (str. 14)

(3) If only life was that simple. (str. 16)

(4) Please think about what I have said, if only because I believe you are now in great danger. (str. 82)

Literatura

Cobuild, C. (1990), English Grammar, The University of Birmingham Collins London and Glasgow.

Đorđević, R. (2002), Gramatika engleskog jezika, Beograd, Studentski trg 3.

Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1975), A Communicative Grammar of English, Longman.

Maley, A. (1999), He Knows Too Much, Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge.

Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. (1973), A University Grammar of English, Longman.

Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. (1990), A Student’s Grammar of the English Language, Longman.

Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. and Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985), A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Longman.

Zandvoort, R. W. (1975), A Handbook of English Grammar, The English Language Book Society and Longman Group LTD.

Internet izvori:

Breaking news English, 2014. Dostupno na: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/. (10.15 h, 1. 7. 2014)

Your Dictionary, 2014. Dostupno na: http://www.yourdictionary.com/ (13.39 h, 18. 6. 2014)

Your Dictionary, 2014. Dostupno na: http://www.yourdictionary.com/ (11.20 h, 30. 7. 2014)

Connectives in the novel He Knows Too Much, Alan Maley

Summary: The paper represents the detailed analysis of connectives as a functional category in the novel He Knows Too Much by Alan Maley. Definition of connectives as well as of conjunctions is given in the paper. Then, forms of conjunctions that can have the function of connectives are described. The coordination and subordination that connect two sentences, and at the same time create a relationship of independence or dependence between them, will be also described. A detailed description of the coordinating conjunctions, their meaning as well as coordinative structures will be given. At the end, the analysis of subordinating conjunctions is presented. The examples are found in the novel He Knows Too Much by Alan Maley, while the examples that are not found in the novel are taken from the six level lessons found on the internet site Breaking news English.com. (BNE)

Keywords: connectives, conjunctions, coordination, subordination, meaning, structures.

Izvor fotografije: linkedin.com

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